Testosterone

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Testosterone

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is essential for health and well-being, and for the prevention of osteoporosis. In humans and other mammals, testosterone is secreted primarily by the testicles of males and, to a lesser extent, the ovaries of females. Small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. On average, in adult males, levels of testosterone are about 7–8 times as great as in adult females. As the metabolic consumption of testosterone in males is greater, the daily production is about 20 times greater in men. Females are also more sensitive to the hormone. Testosterone is a steroid from the androstane class containing a keto and hydroxyl groups at the three and seventeen positions respectively. It is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites. It exerts its action through binding to and activation of the androgen receptor. Reference

Testosterone, hormone produced by the male testis that is responsible for development of the male sex organs and masculine characteristics, including facial hair and deepening of the voice. Testosterone was isolated from testicular extracts in 1935. Its discovery followed that of an androgen called androsterone, which was isolated from urine in 1931. However, testosterone proved to be more potent than androsterone, which was later shown to be a biochemical product of testosterone. A healthy man produces about 5 mg of testosterone daily. Testosterone serves as a circulating prohormone for a more active androgen called dihydrotestosterone. Testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone in most tissues that are sensitive to androgens, including the testes, prostate gland, hair follicles, and muscles. Although testosterone itself has androgenic actions, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone is critical to the development of external genitalia in boys. Testosterone is also converted to estradiol in adipose tissue which can be converted into estrogens. Reference

Testosterone belongs to a class of hormones called androgens. These are male hormones responsible for the development of the male reproductive system and secondary male sexual characteristics such as voice depth and facial hair. Testosterone is normally produced by the testes in large quantities in men. It also occurs normally in smaller quantities in women. Testosterone stimulates the growth of the male reproductive organs and promotes the development of the male secondary sex characteristics. It also affects body hair distribution, baldness, voice, and skin thickness and promotes each of the following: the formation of spermatozoa, protein formation, muscle development, bone growth, the retention of calcium, the rate of basal metabolism , and the number of red blood cells in the body. Reference